The following items can be found on the The Lanes Armoury websitewith full descriptions, photographs and prices. Alexander William Kinglake was an English travel writer and historian. His very finest work is considered to be his work on Crimea and it was regarded as the most effective work of its class.
Chinese nationalism The awakening of nationalism across Asia helped shape the history of the continent.
The key episode was the decisive defeat of Russia by Japan indemonstrating the military superiority of non-Europeans in a modern war. The defeat which quickly led to manifestations of a new interest in nationalism in China, as well as Turkey, and Persia. It was a nationwide protest movement about the domestic backwardness of China and has often been depicted as the intellectual foundation for Chinese Communism.
According to historian Patricia Ebrey: Nationalism, patriotism, progress, science, democracy, and freedom were the goals; imperialism, feudalism, warlordism, autocracy, patriarchy, and blind adherence to tradition were the enemies.
Intellectuals struggled with how to be strong and modern and yet Chinese, how to preserve China as a political entity in the world of competing nations. African nationalism and History of Africa Kenneth Kaundaan anti-colonial political leader from Zambiapictured at a nationalist rally in colonial Northern Rhodesia now Zambia in In the s the European powers divided up almost all of Africa only Ethiopia and Liberia were independent.
They ruled until after World War II when forces of nationalism grew much stronger. In the s and s the colonial holdings became independent states.
The process was usually peaceful but there were several long bitter bloody civil wars, as in Algeria,  Kenya  and elsewhere. Across Africa nationalism drew upon the organizational skills that natives learned in the British and French and other armies in the world wars.
It led to organizations that were not controlled by or endorsed by either the colonial powers not the traditional local power structures that were collaborating with the colonial powers.
Nationalistic organizations began to challenge both the traditional and the new colonial structures and finally displaced them. Leaders of nationalist movements took control when the European authorities exited; many ruled for decades or until they died off.
These structures included political, educational, religious, and other social organizations. In recent decades, many African countries have undergone the triumph and defeat of nationalistic fervor, changing in the process the loci of the centralizing state power and patrimonial state. From toit was controlled by white Afrikaner nationalists focused on racial segregation and white minority rule known officially as apartheid.
The black nationalist movement fought them until success was achieved by the African National Congress in and Nelson Mandela was elected President.
As the Ottoman Empire declined and the Middle East was carved up by the Great Powers of Europe, Arabs sought to establish their own independent nations ruled by Arabs rather than foreigners. Syria was established in ; Transjordan later Jordan gradually gained independence between and ; Saudi Arabia was established in ; and Egypt achieved gradually gained independence between and The Arab League was established in to promote Arab interests and cooperation between the new Arab states.
Parallel to these efforts was the Zionist movement which emerged among European Jews in the 19th century. Beginning in Jews, predominantly from Europe, began emigrating to Ottoman Palestine with the goal of establishing a new Jewish homeland.
The effort culminated in the declaration of the State of Israel in The following items can be found on the The Lanes Armoury website, with full descriptions, photographs and prices. Alexander Dumas' "The Count of Monte Cristo" - The Count of Monte Cristo, a captivating novel written by Alexander Dumas, tells the story of a young French sailor, Edmond Dantès, in who spends fourteen years in prison through the acts of his jealous and conspiring enemies.
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