Definition[ edit ] The concept of forced displacement envelopes demographic movements like flight, evacuation, displacement, and resettlement. The International Organization for Migration defines a forced migrant as any person who migrates to "escape persecution, conflict, repression, natural and human-made disasters, ecological degradation, or other situations that endanger their lives, freedom or livelihood".
Occurrence of a disaster — such as floods, tsunamis, landslides, earthquakes or volcanoes — leads to temporary or permanent displacement of population from that area.
In such a scenario, migration becomes more of a survival strategy, as natural disasters often cause the loss of money, homes, and jobs. For example, Hurricane Katrina resulted in displacement of almost the entire population of New Orleans, leaving the community and government with several economic and social challenges.
The term environmental refugee has been in use recently representing people who are forced to leave their traditional habitat because of environmental factors which negatively impact his or her livelihood, or even environmental disruption i.
Man-made disasters can also cause forced migration: An elaboration of such migrants is given by Essam El-Hinnawi: Migrants who are able to return to their original habitat once the disruption is over, as in the case of the Bhopal disaster. Migrants who remain permanently displaced.
Migrants who seek better living conditions due to deterioration of environmental conditions in their present habitat, such as soil fertility.
Warcivil warpolitical repression or religious conflicts: Some migrants are impelled to cross national borders by war or persecution, due to political, social, ethnic, religious reasons. These immigrants may be considered refugees if they apply for asylum in the receiving country. Such displacement or population transfer is the forcing of communities and individuals out of their homes, often also their homelands, for the purposes of economic development.
It has been historically associated with the construction of dams for hydroelectric power and irrigation purposes but also appears due to many other activities, such as mining and transport roads, ports, airports. The best-known recent example of such development-induced displacement may be that resulting from the construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China.
This type of forced migration disproportionately affects low income earners and ethnic minorities. According to estimates, between 90 and million people were forced to leave their homes due to development projects in the s.
Migrants displaced through deception or coercion with purpose of their exploitation fall under this category. The data on such forced migration are limited since the activities involved are clandestine in nature.
While migration of this nature is well covered for male migrants working in agriculture, construction etc.
The International Labour Organization considers trafficking an offence against labor protection and denies them the opportunity of utilizing their resources for their country. Of the 20 million Africans captured for the trade, half died in their forced march to the African coast, and another ten to twenty percent died on slave ships carrying them from Africa to the Americas.
The systematic forced removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous. Conditions[ edit ] In the majority of cases forced migration across borders takes place without the required documentation.
It may even involve human smugglers and traffickers. Displaced people often place their lives at risk, are obliged to travel in inhumane conditions and may be exposed to exploitation and abuse.
And on top of that the states where they seek protection may regard them as a threat to their security. Most of the victims of war, political refugees and DPs of the immediate post-Second World War period were Ukrainians, Poles, other Slavs, as well as citizens of the Baltic states — Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians, who refused to return to Soviet-dominated eastern Europe.
Jaffe claimed that the term was originally coined by Eugene M. If the displaced person has crossed an international border and falls under one of the relevant international legal instrumentsthey may become a refugee.
However, forced migrants may not apply for asylum in the country they fled to, so they may not be classed as asylum seekers or — if application would be successful — refugees. The terms refugee and asylum seeker always have a legal framework or system as context.
If forced migrants do not access this legal system or it does not exist in the country they have fled to, they cannot be categorised as such.
Forced migrants are always either IDPs or displaced people, as both of these terms do not require a legal framework and the fact that they left their homes is sufficient. The distinction between the terms displaced person and forced migrant is minor, however, the term displaced person has an important historic context e.
A displaced person who crosses an international border without permission from the country they are entering, and without applying for asylum, may be considered an illegal immigrant. A displaced person who left his or her home because of political persecution or violence, but did not cross an international border, is commonly considered to be the less well-defined category of internally displaced person IDPand is subject to more tenuous international protection.
Bogumil Terminski distinguishes two general categories of internal displacement: If the displaced person was forced out their home because of economically driven projects like that of the Three Gorges Dam in China and various Indian dams, it is called development-induced displacement.
People are also often displaced due to natural or man-made disasters. Displacement can also occur as a result of slow-onset climate changesuch as desertification or sea-level rise. A person who is displaced due to environmental factors which negatively impact his or her livelihood is generally known as an environmental migrant.
Such displacement can be cross-border in nature but is frequently internal.Further reading. Betts, Alexander: Forced Migration and Global kaja-net.com-Blackwell.
James, Paul (). "Faces of Globalization and the Borders of States: From Asylum Seekers to Citizens". World Migration Report The World Migration Report, IOM's flagship publication, features the latest trends in international migration, discusses emerging policy issues and provides regional recent developments in Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Oceania.
Castles () maintains that globalization tends to erode the sovereignty and autonomy of the nation-state and that international migration is an integral part of globalization. Globalization has made migration much easier through better communications, dissemination of information through mass media and improved transport, among others.
Globalization is about deterritorialization, Suárez-Orozco writes, not only of markets, information, and symbols, but also of large and growing numbers of people.
Large-scale immigration is a world issue that is transforming Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. About the author. Jump to >> Stephen Castles; Mark J. Miller; Hein de Haas; Stephen Castles is Research Professor of Sociology, University of Sydney, Australia and Research Associate Director at the International Migration Institute (IMI), University of Oxford, UK.
He is a sociologist and political economist, and currently works on migration and development, effects of migration . Published by Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Global Future and International Organization for Migration December The joint scenario building initiative “Tomorrow’s world on migration and mobility” of Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Global Future and the International Organization for Migration is premised on the acknowledgement that migration in .